Designing roads, buildings etc for enhancing the environment to meet the needs of peoples. Research done to satisfy the basic needs and to protect nature.
It is a derived source from the basic research which will increase the effectiveness of the working system. Designing a vehicle is done in basic research but it should have the capacity to with stand more loads and to give enough mileage. The research work is on increasing mileage or increasing the load carrying capacity. A civil engineer will design a structure but the person one who use the system may need some modification in that particular structure, to get a final out put. eg; basic research in civil is to design a structure but the structure need some additional facility like using some special material to increase the strength as well as to reduce the cost of construction.
The first or the original model we call it as prototype from which the others system is copied to make development in the system. Adding different components from other system to make the system more flexible in working.
The component from a different system is modified and it is made to get adapted with the current system, integrating the different components to get a product with required specification.
The design method which is adopted in engineering to manufacture a product in a safe and economy way.
6.Marketing & Promotion
The innovation has to be diffused in various medium to get market promotion for a product.
7.Improvement and Enhancement
Designing for suitability and to give better quality output when it is compared from the existing result.