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Soils are formed by weathering of rocks due to Mechanical disintegration or Chemical decomposition. When rock surface are exposed to atmosphere for considerable period of time, 
( contineous heating and cooling of rock )  result in  disintegrates or decomposes to form soil.

Formation of Soil also happens due to physical reaction and chemical reaction over the surface

1. Physical Disintegration
2. Chemical decomposition of rocks
Soil Classification is separation of soil into classes or groups each having similar characteristics and behaviour. Classification for engineering purpose should be based mainly on mechanical properties.
Like: Permeability, Stiffness, Strength etc.,

Classification based on Grain Size
Soil particles 
       1.Fine soil
  • below 0.002mm are clay
  • between 0.002 to 0.075mm are silt
      2. Coares grained soil

  • between 0.075 to 4.75mm are sand
  • between 4.75 to 80mm are gravel size



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What is Compaction?
Compaction is said to be compression of soil by expulsion of air from voids. It is a quick process, requires short term loading. Dynamic loading is applied during compaction, both cohesion and cohesionless soil can be compacted. Compaction is always done to get maximum dry density, which helps in improving bearing capacity. Compaction is done before start of construction. Mostly done in Construction of roads, Embankment, dam etc.,

What is Consolidation?
Consolidation is said to be compression of soil by expulsion of water from voids. It is a slow process, requires long term loading. Static or constant loading is applied (some times happen naturally), only cohesive soil can be consolidated. Consolidation is done naturally by structural loads from foundation. Consolidation is done naturally during the process of Construction. (Some times happen with natural settlement)



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Brickwork Construction
In most of the building construction projects brick is used in an higher proportion nearly about 70 to 80%. So, estimating the quantity of bricks and other material for construction is the basic step to do construction in an economy way.

  1. Bricks used in the construction is available in different sizes based on the location for our present study let us take a standard size of  modular brick is 190 X 90 X 90 mm.
  2. Assume Mortar thickness as 10 mm
  3. Cement mortar ratio 1:6
  4. Calculation is done for Brickwork volume 1cum (1 cubic metre) - Volume of your brickwork
Calculation

Volume of bricks with mortar

Volume of 1 brick with mortar = 200 X 100 X 100 ( 10 mm mortar thickness on all sides)

                                                  = 0.2 X 0.1 X 0.1

Volume of brick with mortar = 0.002 Cum (m3)


Number of Bricks required for 1 cubic metre = 1/0.002 = 500 Numbers

Volume of bricks without mortar

Volume of 1 brick without mortar = 190 X 90 X 90

                                                       = 0.19 X 0.09 X 0.09 (converting to metre)

Volume of 1 brick without mortar  =  0.001539 Cum (m3)

Volume of 500 bricks without mortar = 500 X 0.001539 Cum

Volume of bricks without mortar for 1 cum = 0.7695 Cum  (m3)

Required amount of cement mortar = 1 Cum – Volume of bricks without mortar

                                                         = 1 – 0.7695

Required amount of Cement Mortar  = 0.2305 Cum  (m3) (Wet Condition)

The Calculated volume is in a wet condition that means we need 0.2305 cum cement mortar in mixed condition (after mixing water). In order to find the dry volume, we need to multiply 33 % as bulkage of sand.

Dry volume of a mortar = 0.2305 cum X 1.33 = 0.306565 cum

Mortar Ratio is 1:6
1 part cement and 6 part sand, total part 1+6 =7
Density of cement = 1440 kg, multiplying the 1440 kg density of cement with dry volume of mortar to calculate the cement quantity.
1= cement part
7= total 
Required amount Cement quantity in brickwork = 0.306565 X 1/7 X 1440 kg

Required amount Cement quantity = 63 Kg = 1.26 bags
Approximately 1.26 bags if the bacg is 50 Kg


6 = Sand part
7 = total
Required amount of Sand = 0.306565 X 6/7 = 0.26277 Cubic metre

For 1Cubic metre of Brickwork, we require

  • 500 Bricks
  • 63 Kg Cement 
  • 0.263 cum sand


Android app for Brickwork Calculator 
Windows Version


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Clay
Cohesion is said to be attraction between particle of same type or origin, type of soil where there is inter-particular attraction. In these type of soil particles are very fine and it is governed by surface fore rather than its self weight. Also, the friction between the soil will not happen hence shear strength will be contributed by only cohesive force and not internal friction.






Example: Clay

Non-cohesive soil -soil with out cohesive force, has coarser particles with self weight governing their behaviour. The soil particle has internal friction and shear strength depends on internal friction between their sand particles. 

Example: Sand

Most natural soil have both cohesive and frictional force contributes shear strength.

Sand
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The following are the good properties of brick which helps in building and maintaining the structure safe for longer period

  1. Colour of the brick should be uniform
  2. The faces of brick should be plane and should have sharp and right-angled corners.
  3. Size of the brick should as per the standards (codes) of the country.
  4. The texture of the brick should be fine, dense and uniform.
  5. When we struck two bricks it should produce a metallic sound.
  6. When scratched with finger the brick should not produce any impression over surface.
  7. The brick should not break when it is dropped from a height of 1m.
  8. The crushing strength of brick should be equal or greater than 3.5N/mm2.
  9. The water absorption should not be more than 20% of the weight of the brick. (immersed for 24hours)
  10. The brick should not show white patches when soaked in water for 24 hours and dry in shade. Presence of white patches indicates the presence of sulphate of calcium, magnesium and potassium.
  11. The brick should have low thermal conductivity which keeps the home cool in all weather.
  12. Light weight and hollow bricks provide good sound insulation.
  13.  Fire resistivity is another good quality of brick.